Sunday, December 29, 2013

Free online converter

Free online converter
To convert RTF ODT MHT HTM HTML TXT FB2 DOT DOTX XLS XLSX XLSB ODS XLT XLTX PPT PPTX PPS PPSX ODP POT POTX to PDF, please, use the following link Other documents to PDF.

Monday, September 23, 2013

Solar Panel System Library ~ Electrical Technology

Solar Panel System Library ~ Electrical Technology

Solar Panel System Library 

Tuesday, August 13, 2013

Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal cost of coal.pdf

Each stage in the life cycle of coal—extraction, transport, processing, and combustion—generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered “externalities.” We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of non fossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world

The electricity derived from coal is an integral part of our daily lives. However, coal carries a heavy burden.
The yearly and cumulative costs stemming from the aerosolized, solid, and water pollutants associated
with the mining, processing, transport, and combustion of coal affect individuals, families, communities, ecological integrity, and the global climate. The economic implications go far beyond the prices
we pay for electricity.
Our comprehensive review finds that the best estimate for the total economically quantifiable costs,
based on a conservative weighting of many of the study findings, amount to some $345.3 billion,
adding close to 17.8¢/kWh of electricity generated from coal. The low estimate is $175 billion, or over
9¢/kWh, while the true monetizable costs could be  as much as the upper bounds of $523.3 billion adding close to 26.89¢/kWh. These and the more
difficult to quantify externalities are borne by the
general public.
Still these figures do not represent the full societal
and environmental burden of coal. In quantifying
the damages, we have omitted the impacts of toxic
chemicals and heavy metals on ecological systems
and diverse plants and animals; some ill-health endpoints (morbidity) aside from mortality related to
air pollutants released through coal combustion that
are still not captured; the direct risks and hazards
posed by sludge, slurry, and CCW impoundments;
the full contributions of nitrogen deposition to eutrophication of fresh and coastal sea water; the prolonged impacts of acid rain and acid mine drainage;
many of the long-term impacts on the physical and
mental health of those living in coal-field regions
and nearby MTR sites; some of the health impacts
and climate forcing due to increased tropospheric
ozone formation; and the full assessment of impacts
due to an increasingly unstable climate.
The true ecological and health costs of coal are
thus far greater than the numbers suggest. Accounting for the many external costs over the life cycle
for coal-derived electricity conservatively doubles
to triples th

Friday, June 21, 2013

Worlds Largest Solar Cooking Class - YouTube

Worlds Largest Solar Cooking Class - YouTube
On occasion of 150th birth anniversary of Swamy Vivekananadji, a record breaking Solar Cooking Class was arranged at JES College Ground, Jalna

Wednesday, June 12, 2013

Rooftop Revolution Changing Everything with Cost-Effective Local Solar

Today solar energy provides less than 1% of our nation’s electricity. Yet already over 300,000 homes boast a solar array. With
the cost of solar power plunging and retail electric prices rising,
in the next ten years 100 million Americans may be able to “go
solar” for a lower price than grid electricity. We need to plan for
this transition now, eliminating barriers to the rapid growth of
solar energy and changing the inflexible and inefficient tax subsidy for solar into a more flexible, transitional feed-in tariff. We
need to stop investing in centralized power and long distance
high voltage transmission lines and instead invest in new electricity infrastructure more compatible with decentralized power.


Energy subsidies have wide-ranging economic consequences. While aimed at
protecting consumers, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd-out priority public
spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. Subsidies also
distort resource allocation by encouraging excessive energy consumption, artificially
promoting capital-intensive industries, reducing incentives for investment in renewable
energy, and accelerating the depletion of natural resources. Most subsidy benefits are
captured by higher-income households, reinforcing inequality. Even future generations
are affected through the damaging effects of increased energy consumption on global
warming. This paper provides: (i) the most comprehensive estimates of energy subsidies
currently available for 176 countries; and (ii) an analysis of ―how to do‖ energy subsidy
reform, drawing on insights from 22 country case studies undertaken by IMF staff and
analyses carried out by other institutions.

Sunday, March 31, 2013

“Handbook for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems”

“Handbook for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems”

1 Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview 4
1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Types of Solar PV System 5
1.3 Solar PV Technology 6
• Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies 8
• Conversion Efficiency 8
• Effects of Temperature 9
1.4 Technical Information 10
2 Solar PV Systems on a Building 12
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Installation Angle 12
2.3 Avoid Shading PV Modules 13
2.4 Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules 14
2.5 Solar PV Output Profile 14
2.6 Solar PV Yield 15
2.7 Cost of a Solar PV System 15
3 Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor 16
3.1 Introduction 16
3.2 Getting Started 17
• Get an Experienced and Licensed Contractor 17
• Choosing Between Bids 17
• Solar PV System Warranty 17
• Regular Maintenance 19
• Other Relevant Matters 19
4 Solar PV System Installation Requirements 20
4.1 Electrical Installation Licence 20
4.2 Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements 20
4.3 Application of Electrical Installation Licence 21
4.4 Conservation and Development Control Requirements 21
4.5 Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control 21
4.6 Structural Safety and Lightning Protection 22
• Structural Safety 22
• Lightning Protection 22
4.7 Connection to the Power Grid 22
4.8 Get Connected to the Power Grid 23
4.9 Sale of Solar PV Electricity 23
• Non-residential User 23
• Residential User 25
4.10 Design and Installation Checklist 26
5 Operations and Maintenance 28
5.1 Operations of Solar PV Systems 28
5.2 Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works 29

Saturday, March 30, 2013

LankaTronics - Sri Lanka's Best Electronic Component Store LankaTronics

LankaTronics - Sri Lanka's Best Electronic Component Store LankaTronics

A good place for Electronic items in Sri Lanka.

LankaTronics Trading (Pvt) Ltd. 
AddressNo. 34/1, Old Kesbewa Road,
Rattanapitiya, Boralesgamuwa, Sri Lanka.
Phone+94 11 2545470
 +94 77 7810250
 +94 77 7873747
Fax+94 11 2545470

Feasibility of solar electricity in Sri Lanka | Features

Feasibility of solar electricity in Sri Lanka | Features

On today's tariff any domestic consumer consuming more than 360 kWh/month have a simple pay back period of 5.3 to 5.4 years.

By 4th April we expect an INCREASE in all the electricity tariff to be announced with the approval of the PUCSL for which tariff proposals have been submitted by CEB which we are sure will be trimmed and adjusted with the open discussions that will be held on 4 th April in public with all stake holders and consumers. I expect the Pay Back period to improve further.

Feasibility of solar electricity in Sri Lanka

By Srilal Miththapala & Suranga Karavita

An overview of the state of Solar PV installation in the Sri Lankan hotel industry was carried out recently by the SWITCH-Asia Greening Sri Lanka Hotels programme project team. While doing this study, the project team also analysed the impact of the proposed electricity increases on domestic Solar PV installations as well. A ready reckoner feasibility chart for evaluating financial feasibility of Solar PV installations for residences was also prepared. The following paper discusses these aspects.


Of late, there has been much discussion about the generation of electricity from solar energy. This is usually called solar photovoltaic generation (Solar PV), where an array of solar cells, typically mounted on the roof of a building, will capture the solar energy and transform it to electrical energy.

In a conventional or standalone system, the solar electricity has to be stored, since usage (demand) does not always coincide with supply (generation).  Hence, in a typical installation, electricity is generated in the form of direct current (DC) and usually stored in batteries. The size of such battery banks required will depend on the size of the installation and the days for which the system can operate on battery power alone, with no input from other generation sources.

In addition, the system requires an inverter to convert the electricity stored in the battery in the form of direct current (DC), to alternate current (AC) at a higher voltage, to be compatible with the downstream installation. The cost of a battery bank can be as much as a Solar PV panel for a well-designed system, which can provide power for several days when the Solar PV is not generating electricity. Batteries are still in the development stage and they are prone to premature failure. So, it is common that in Solar PV installations with a battery bank, some of the batteries have to be replaced before the specified lifetime.

Cost of installation

The high cost of Solar PV panels and the large amount of batteries required for storage resulted in the cost of such installations being prohibitively high and not feasible for installation as alternate energy sources.

With rapidly increasing electricity rates, reduction in price of Solar PV panels and  acceptance by the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB)  to trade electricity units with the grid, Solar PV installations are at present becoming more financially attractive.

‘Trading’ of electricity

This ‘trading’ of electricity units, recently allowed by the CEB, is referred to as net metering or grid tie. This is where an electricity consumer is able to generate electricity at the consumer’s own premises, using any form of alternate energy source and can then synchronize the electricity thus produced with the CEB system and ‘export’ it to the CEB.

Figure 2 – Solar PV installation with ‘grid tie’ system

The consumer is not paid for this ‘exported’ electricity but is given credit (in kWh), which is set off against his normal electricity consumption off the grid. There will be metering for consumption as well for export of energy to the CEB network.

Each month, consumption and export of energy will be compared. If the export is more than the consumption, credit is given (in kWh). If consumption is higher than export, the consumer is charged for net amount of consumption (consumption - export).

 This is effectively a ‘win-win’ situation for both the consumer and the electricity service provider (the CEB or LECO). The consumer benefits by being able to export the electricity he generates without having to store it, thereby reducing the need and the cost for a storage battery bank.

From the CEB’s/LECO’s point of view, there is some form of electricity demand reduction from the grid, since the consumer is now producing some quantum of electrical energy.

At present, the cost of investing in a grid tie Solar PV is around Rs.350,000 per kW and the cost of investing in a conventional Solar PV system is around Rs.700,000.
Solar PV installation in hotel industry

In spite of grid tie options being available, the reduction in cost of Solar PV panels and increased cost of electricity, Solar PV for larger industrial applications is still not financially attractive, due to the long pay back periods of around 15 years for a grid tied system and around 30 years for standalone systems.

Hence, from the surveys and studies carried out by the SWITCH-Asia Greening Sri Lanka Hotels programme, it has been found that Solar PV installation in hotels is still few and far between. In fact, from the 350 odd hotels working with the Greening Hotels programme, there are only three hotels, which have some form of Solar PV installations.

Ulagalla Resort

This 80 roomed resort hotel in Anuradhapura has been the trailblazer in taking a bold step in installing the largest Solar PV system in a hotel so far. It has a bank of Solar PV panels covering 900 sqms, generating 120 KW of electrical energy, which amounts to about 40 percent of the hotel’s total electrical demand.

The system operates on a net metering platform and cost about Rs.125 million for the entire installation, which was done with the commissioning of the hotel in 2010. While certainly the hotel has taken a bold and pioneering step in having such a large Solar PV installation, payback periods are still quite high.

However, the hotel has been able to market this unique installation to give it a strong identity as a hotel which embraces good sustainable consumption practices.

Jetwing Sea and Jetwing Blue

When the former Jetwing Seashell Hotel was refurbished and relaunched as Jetwing Sea, a self-contained (inclusive of battery bank) Solar PV was installed for one wing of the guest rooms in the hotel. The installation cost was about Rs.12 million in 2010 and generates approximately 15 kW.

Former Jetwing Blue Oceanic was also refurbished and relaunched in the same year as Jetwing Blue and a Solar PV system, similar to Jetwing Sea was installed of capacity 20 kW, at a cost of Rs.16 million.

More than being a financial consideration, here again, it has become a unique selling proposition (USP) and a powerful marketing tool. The hotel proudly advertises itself that most of its rooms’ electrical energy is powered by the sun and each room has an indicator to show when the room is powered by solar (green light) and when it is powered by the mains, during low sunlight periods (red light).

Hence, other than for selective marketing and differentiating propositions, currently, larger Solar PV installations, either grid tied or standalone systems do not seem to be that viable in large scale hotel applications.

Solar PV for residences

However, with the rapid increase in electricity rates for residential buildings which consume higher loads, grid tie Solar PV installations are becoming a very much more feasible option.

Provided adequate roof area or space on the ground is available, any residence utilizing more than 300 units of electricity (kWh) per month, with the grid tie Solar PV installation at current cost and new electricity rates (which are being proposed),  will pay back in just about less than six years.

The project has developed a ready reckoner, which gives a quick approximate indication of the financial feasibility of a Solar PV installation for residences.

It is evident from the table below, which shows the co-relation of payback periods for Solar PV installations and units consumed, it is evident that the moment a domestic consumer exceeds the lower thresholds of consumption of around 250 units, the effective electricity charges increase exponentially, bringing the payback period rapidly down to  seven years and less.

(Srilal Miththapala, an Electrical Engineer by profession and a senior tourism professional and Suranga Karavita, a Mechanical Engineer, are Project Director and Industry Technical Services Manager of EU SWITCH-ASIA Programme Greening Sri Lanka Hotels project implemented by Ceylon Chamber of Commerce respectively)